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Primeras aventuras

Los niños y las pantallas
Claudia Rodríguez Acosta, psicoanalista

La brecha generacional que apareció conforme el uso del internet se hizo cada vez más común, implicó una gran transformación en la forma de vivir. A pesar de que las pantallas existen desde hace muchos años, y de que gran parte de la población mundial pasa horas frente a los televisores; la aparición de dispositivos más pequeños y fáciles de manipular conectados a una red en la que es posible encontrar cualquier cosa, fue un hecho que transformó la educación y la vida familiar.

Desde hace ya casi un año, a raíz de la pandemia, el uso de estos dispositivos y de la conexión a internet, se ha convertido en una prioridad que nos ha permitido darle continuidad a las actividades de la vida.

Expuestos al mundo digital

Los niños no quedan excluidos de esta realidad, muchos de ellos, incluso los más pequeños, saben cómo manipular un celular, incluso cómo poner un programa en el iPad, ellos han nacido en un mundo en el que la tecnología y la conexión a internet son indispensables. ¿Cómo les afecta esto a ellos, sobre todo a los más pequeños?

Me parece curioso que mucho se hable del daño que se produce cuando un niño esté frente a una pantalla, de las dificultades de atención y concentración que serán consecuencia de esto, de las dificultades en las relaciones sociales e incluso de la conducta psicopática que puede ser producto de mirar «malos programas».

Su cerebro es más complejo

Afortunadamente el funcionamiento humano es muchísimo más complejo. Decir que un niño es «berrinchudo», distraído, poco inteligente, poco tolerante, etcétera, debido a que pasa mucho tiempo frente a una pantalla, es una afirmación que siempre hay que cuestionar. El desarrollo cognitivo, motriz y emocional de los niños tiene que ver con factores diversos, conscientes e inconscientes, congénitos ambientales, familiares y culturales. 

El uso de dispositivos electrónicos puede optimizar la vida, conectarnos con los demás, estimular nuestro deseo por aprender; en el caso de los niños, hay programas que les ayudan a practicar diferentes palabras, a cantar, a bailar, a escuchar historias, reconocer colores, etcétera.

Sólo un asistente

Sin embargo, las pantallas por sí solas no pueden hacer todo el trabajo, así como tampoco pueden perjudicar por el simple hecho de ser utilizadas. La presencia del adulto es fundamental, los niños necesitan de la función que lleva a cabo un adulto para ser cuidados, escuchados, para aprender a jugar, para sentirse acompañados. Pero esto no tiene que ver con que un adulto esté presente físicamente todo el día ni con sobre proteger a los niños o tratar de nunca frustrarlos; la presencia va mucho más allá de una conducta, tiene que ver con conectarse con los niños y saber qué necesitan, también tiene que ver con darles espacio, con permitir que se frustren, con permitirles jugar solos, con ayudarlos a crecer. Esto puede hacerse con o sin pantallas.

Exaltan su creatividad Un niño con una gran capacidad de jugar y con un deseo por aprender va a utilizar los dispositivos electrónicos como medios para hacerlo, lo hará de una manera creativa; por otro lado, un infante que ha estado a cargo de adultos que lo violentan o que no lo cuidan o que están demasiado ansiosos y lo sobre protegen puede utilizar las pantallas para evadirse y para calmar su ansiedad. Las pantallas, el internet, los programas, las películas, las caricaturas, son factores secundarios para el desarrollo del niño, recordemos que lo más importante es el vínculo que hace ese niño con sus cuidadores primarios.

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