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¿Cómo madura su sistema digestivo?

PRIMERAS AVENTURAS

Se encargará de transportar alimentos y digerirlos para su desarrollo, pero antes de ser tan eficiente, atraviesa múltiples transformaciones desde el vientre materno, conócelos.

Por: Ida Núñez

Se trata de una aventura fascinante, debes saber que este órgano, se constituye durante la semana cinco de gestación, la placenta es la encargada de proporcionarle los nutrientes para su crecimiento. Hasta cortar el cordón umbilical se pone en funcionamiento el aparato digestivo del bebé, que aún está inmaduro para cumplir con todas sus funciones.

Inicia la protección

Imagínate el estómago de un recién nacido, tiene un tamaño parecido al de una canica y sólo posee una capacidad de cinco a siete milímetros. Los tres o cuatro días posteriores al parto, el busto producirá aproximadamente 20 mililitros de calostro, para que la madre pueda brindar la lactancia materna, es un líquido amarillo, espeso y de poco volumen, por cada toma y será suficiente para cumplir con los requerimientos de alimentación del bebé; a pesar de que el pequeño pierda peso. Posee una gran cantidad de linfocitos que crean una protección contra los gérmenes del medio ambiente.

Rápida transición

Para el cuarto día el estómago ya tendrá el tamaño de una nuez, con una capacidad de almacenamiento de 22 a 27 mililitros. La producción de leche materna habrá aumentado, gracias a las tomas frecuentes de los primeros días y seguirá en incremento, hasta el día 15 de posparto para convertirse en una leche madura.

El bebé al cumplir una semana de vida, poseerá un estómago similar al tamaño de un chabacano y comenzará a ganar peso. Por su parte la leche madura estará compuesta por agua, proteínas, inmunoglobulinas y lisozima, ésta última ofrece poderes antimicrobianos y contribuye a la salud de la microbiota, de acuerdo con la UNICEF.

Fortalezas en camino

Probablemente notarás que durante los tres primeros meses de vida, el chiquitín escupe leche, ocurre porque el esfínter que separa al estómago del esófago, todavía es inmaduro. Por su parte, la capa mucosa que recubre el tracto gastrointestinal, protectora de microbios aún es muy delgada y puede poner al nene en riesgo, por ello es importante el consumo exclusivo de leche materna, durante los primeros seis meses de vida para que madure, de acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud.

Vínculo vital

Antes se pensaba que el tracto intestinal de un recién nacido estaba libre de bacterias, pero recientes estudios demuestran que la ingesta de la madre, desde el embarazo desplaza los alimentos y bacterias hacia la placenta, por lo cual la microbiota del feto se empieza a colonizar desde el útero, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por la Facultad de Medicina Baylor. Por ello es importante la alimentación equilibrada de la madre desde la gestación, debe incluir proteínas, frutas, verduras y grasas buenas, además de alimentos ricos en probióticos, como los yogures y productos fermentados como la soya y chucrut.

Las enzimas son importantes en la absorción de nutrientes para su desarrollo, así como también las bacterias de la microbiota son vitales. Según un estudio realizado en la Universidad de California, gracias a la transferencia de microorganismos de la leche materna al intestino del niño, se constituye una microbiota sana durante los primeros meses de vida; mientras que su sistema digestivo madura para que logre digerir enzimas y grasas, a los seis meses será apto para el consumo de alimentos sólidos.

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